The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) was established in 1981 as an intergovernmental alliance, uniting six neighboring countries: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE. While security concerns played a central role in its formation, the GCC had grand ambitions of achieving economic unity, including the creation of a customs union and a shared currency.
In 1989, a significant turning point occurred in the Gulf’s relationship with the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Union (EU) precursor. An agreement was reached between the GCC nations and the EEC, laying the foundation for formalized relations. The GCC’s engagement with the EU began to emulate the European integration process as a model for economic cooperation among its member states. The inaugural joint ministerial conference between the EEC and GCC occurred in 1985, leading to subsequent negotiating rounds. This ultimately resulted in the signing of a Cooperation Agreement on 15 June 1988, which officially took effect on 20 February 1989.
The EU finances various regional projects to further enhance dialogue and cooperation with GCC countries on critical areas of mutual interest. These projects encompass:
- EU-GCC Political Dialogue Project: Launched in December 2020 with a budget of €3.5 million, this project, funded by the European Union through its Partnership Instrument, aims to bolster political dialogue through concrete activities, cooperation, and outreach between the two sides.
- EU-GCC Dialogue on Economic Diversification: This initiative promotes climate-friendly trade, investment, and policy analysis dialogue related to economic affairs. It aims to foster cooperation between stakeholders.
- EU-GCC Clean Energy Technology Network: These projects seek to strengthen ties and foster mutual understanding between the EU and its Gulf partners. They contribute to a stronger relationship, reinforcing the alliance between the EU and the GCC countries, grounded in mutual interests.
Despite more than three decades of active engagement in the EU-GCC dialogue, which ostensibly seeks to foster collaboration and address pressing issues, the reality has often fallen short of optimistic aspirations. Harmonizing viewpoints and creating a cohesive strategy to confront new challenges and conflicts has proven challenging for the EU and GCC. Notably, human rights conditions have deteriorated, posing a significant concern. While the EU strongly emphasizes human rights as a fundamental value and a cornerstone of its external actions, these values have not consistently translated into effective policies in its relations with the GCC. The GCC’s troubling record of human rights violations demands immediate and substantive attention rather than mere expressions of regret.
Within this context, the European Centre for Democracy and Human Rights (ECDHR) expresses deep disappointment with the outcomes achieved through these dialogues. Subsequent years have witnessed a stark disconnect between words and actions. As human rights abuses continue to mount, executions persist unabated, civil society grapples with significant obstacles, and fundamental freedoms are violated with impunity, the urgency for swift and resolute action becomes increasingly evident. The ECDHR emphatically calls on the EU to reevaluate its approach, moving beyond rhetoric and translating its commitment to human rights protection into concrete measures.
- Critical Analysis:
Over the years, the European Union (EU) has initiated human rights dialogues with an increasing number of nations. These dialogues are led by the European External Action Service (EEAS) on behalf of the High Representative. The EEAS has diligently worked to enhance and standardize the structure and execution of these dialogues. Consequently, the EU has engaged in discussions and consultations on human rights with a diverse array of countries. This practice gained momentum after the adoption of the EU Guidelines on Human Rights Dialogues with third countries in December 2001. Approximately 60 human rights dialogues and consultations are in progress with partner countries and regional groups.
The EU has developed the Guidelines on Human Rights Dialogues to underscore the priority of human rights in its actions. As highlighted in the document, these dialogues emphasize the pivotal role of communication in the EU’s foreign policy regarding human rights. This emphasis is well-founded as human rights represent the foundational principles upon which the European Union was established and constitute central objectives of its external initiatives. The dialogues, therefore, serve as a versatile tool for implementing the EU’s external human rights policy, seamlessly aligning with the Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy.
Collaboration resulting from these dialogues can take diverse forms, encompassing the exchange of expertise and experiences among participating nations and the allocation of financial resources to support projects related to the discussed themes. In addition, it involves active engagement in cooperative efforts within international forums and the issuance of collective statements addressing specific thematic matters. Furthermore, it includes the strategic organization of events and conferences to facilitate knowledge sharing and the continuation of bilateral consultations for further follow-up actions.
However, references to the human rights dialogues conducted remain vague and lack specific details. These dialogues are often conducted informally or within a private diplomatic arena, resulting in limited information about their content. The EU’s annual human rights reports provide only basic information, and occasionally, there are brief mentions of these dialogues in Council conclusions or joint statements released after bilateral summits.
One major problem is that the EU lacks a clear plan for how these human rights dialogues should make a difference in other countries, given that there is no standard measure of their impact. Despite having official guidelines, there are no concrete rules governing the EU’s human rights dialogues and no binding criteria for success. This makes the whole process quite murky and raises doubts about its effectiveness.
This lack of transparency has led to complaints about the EU’s human rights policy, which often seems inconsistent and disconnected from reality. There’s a glaring gap between the EU’s stated commitment to human rights and its actions, especially when dealing with countries with a terrible record on human rights.
The EU justifies its approach by acknowledging that dialogues may not always yield immediate, measurable, or readily visible results. This recognition is in response to criticisms, especially from civil society, which question the effectiveness of these dialogues.
When focusing on the Gulf countries and EU relations, a joint communication outlining a strategic partnership with the Gulf was released on 18 May 2022. This communication delineates a roadmap for the European Union (EU) to forge a closer collaboration with the six member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) across several key priority areas. These areas encompass trade and investment, climate change, energy security, the transition to a greener economy, global health, global development, humanitarian assistance, and the promotion of peace and stability. Within the document, the EU is committed to bolstering adherence to the principles of the rule of law and good governance, aiming to promote transparency, accountability, and trust in GCC institutions. Furthermore, the EU is ready to offer models for fostering inclusive dialogues involving civil society and social partners.
Additionally, the EU intends to continue urging GCC countries to fulfill their international obligations concerning human rights. This includes ratifying relevant United Nations human rights treaties, actively supporting the work of the UN Human Rights Office and UN Special Procedures, fully cooperating with UN human rights mechanisms, and ratifying and implementing International Labour Organization conventions and recommendations. However, despite these intentions, there is a noticeable gap between the impactful words and actions taken to produce tangible results.
EU institutions and individual member states consistently express concerns regarding violations of fundamental human rights within GCC countries. For instance, the European Parliament has issued resolutions addressing human rights violations in Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, and Kuwait. Nevertheless, these actions often have a symbolic character and yield limited concrete results in terms of advancing human rights.
Despite the promotion of EU-GCC human rights dialogues and the frequent assertions by European politicians about their participation in bilateral discussions with GCC authorities regarding human rights concerns, the situation in the region has shown little significant improvement due to these dialogues. In reality, the authoritarian GCC regimes have intensified their mistreatment of their population, resorting to violence against those who dare to dissent against the regime.
The nations bordering the Gulf exhibit alarmingly low levels of respect for their citizens’ civil liberties. Despite the bilateral dialogues with EU member states over the years, there has been a glaring absence of noteworthy progress, as evidenced by the Human Freedom Index. This comprehensive assessment of global human freedom across various dimensions, including personal, civil, and economic freedoms, consistently places GCC countries in the lowest quartile. To provide specific context, in 2023, the rankings for GCC countries were as follows: Kuwait 120th, Qatar 128th, the United Arab Emirates 130th, Oman 132nd, Bahrain 142nd, and Saudi Arabia 154th.
Despite Bahrain’s participation in human rights dialogues with the EU, the human rights situation in the Gulf country has consistently earned a “Not Free” rating from 2018 to 2023 in the Human Freedom Index. There have been no significant changes since the discussions began, underscoring their ineffectiveness. The Sunni-led monarchy has systematically eroded political rights and civil liberties, dismantled political opposition, and suppressed dissent, particularly among the Shiite population.
It is disheartening to note that, since the violent crackdown on peaceful pro-democracy protests in 2011, Bahrain has increasingly become a police state where activists and civil society actors can no longer freely voice their opinions. Hundreds of activists, human rights defenders, and political opponents, such as Abdulhadi Al-Khawaja, Abduljalil al-Singace, and Hassan Mushaima, are serving harsh prison sentences solely for exercising their right to free expression to criticize Bahrain’s regime. Additionally, there has been a hunger strike involving around 800 imprisoned individuals protesting against the abysmal conditions inside Jau prison in Bahrain in August 2023. The kingdom has also violated children’s rights, with minors being arbitrarily arrested and subjected to gruesome human rights violations.
Turning to the situation in Saudi Arabia, the human rights reality in the country has also consistently been rated as “Not Free” from 2018 to 2023. Saudi Arabia’s absolute monarchy restricts almost all political rights and civil liberties, with no national-level officials elected. The regime relies on pervasive surveillance, the criminalization of dissent, appeals to sectarianism and ethnicity, and public spending supported by oil revenues to maintain power. Discrimination against women and religious minorities is prevalent in law and practice.
Saudi Arabia is known to be one of the world’s most prolific executioners, with a significant number of people executed between 2010 and 2021, followed by 196 executions in 2022, and a continued use of the death penalty, with more than 100 death sentences carried out until September 2023.
Over the past decade, human rights activists, lawyers, political parties, religious scholars, bloggers, and critics have been arrested and imprisoned under cruel and degrading treatment and prison conditions. Political parties remain illegal in the country, leaving no organized political opposition and subjecting political dissent to criminal prosecution. Moreover, as more women take leading roles in resisting the government and defending human rights, they have increasingly become targets of abuse and constitute a growing part of the country’s political prisoners. Both male and female political prisoners have faced abuse at every stage of the criminal proceedings, including illegal and arbitrary arrests, physical, sexual, and psychological torture to extract confessions, sham trials, and inhuman prison conditions.
Within the UAE, the emirate hides outrageous human rights violations behind a modern facade. Notably, university professor and human rights lawyer Mohammed al-Roken was imprisoned alongside 68 other people following the unfair “UAE 94” trial, serving a 10-year sentence for exercising his right to freedom of expression. Additionally, academic Nasser bin Ghaith is serving a 10-year sentence for criticizing Emirati and Egyptian authorities, with three of the five charges against him violating his right to free expression. He was arrested after posting tweets that Emirati authorities claimed damaged the state’s reputation and that of its leaders.
The restriction on the right to free expression has dramatically impacted society, including human rights defenders. Leading Emirati human rights defender Ahmed Mansoor, also known as the “million-dollar dissident,” has been imprisoned for more than six years. He was arrested on 20 March 2017 and sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment in May 2018 for “undermining the status and prestige of the United Arab Emirates and its symbols, including its leaders,” solely due to his peaceful human rights activities, particularly his social media posts.
In light of this, it can be affirmed that despite EU-GCC dialogues have often been portrayed as crucial for addressing human rights concerns, the unfortunate reality is that they have failed to bring about any significant improvement in the state of human rights within the Gulf region. A more robust and determined policy of accountability is a necessity, along with precisely defined benchmarks that enable impartial evaluations of concrete advancements, if we are to witness the achievement of substantial and impactful change in this critical arena.
Specific Subjects in Focus:
The issue of executions in GCC countries has raised significant concerns, evident in the statistical data indicating an increase in capital punishment. All six GCC countries have incorporated the death penalty into their legal frameworks, albeit with varying degrees of implementation.
Fortunately, in the UAE, while the legal framework permits the imposition of the death sentence under specific circumstances, the actual implementation of capital punishment is infrequent. The most recent instances of capital punishment were recorded in 2011 and 2014.
Conversely, Saudi Arabia stands out with a notable disparity. In 2022, Saudi Arabia executed an unprecedented 81 individuals in a single day. This action, widely perceived as a severe violation of human rights, underscores the ongoing reliance on capital punishment within the GCC countries. Moreover, this pattern persisted in 2023, with Saudi Arabia executing 100 individuals in less than 9 months, further exacerbating the negative perception of its human rights situation.
The current state of affairs in Bahrain is equally troubling, characterized by a notable increase in the use of capital punishment. From 2011 to the present, there has been a noticeable rise in the number of death sentences, with more than 50 individuals receiving such penalties. This represents a significant contrast to the relatively minor figure of seven death sentences issued between 2001 and 2010. The substantial increase in death sentences, which has witnessed a growth of more than 600 percent in the previous decade, is correlated with the anti-government demonstrations that emerged in 2011.
Kuwait, like other Gulf states, has witnessed a concerning increase in the number of executions, which now extend to cases involving not only murder but also nonviolent drug-related offenses. Despite global advocacy for an immediate suspension of these executions, there have been no signs of reduction. Indeed, it is noteworthy to mention that Kuwait has executed twelve individuals in 2023, emphasizing the seriousness and increasing magnitude of this matter.
In light of these concerning events, the European Union has released a formal statement expressing its regret over the current situation in the GCC countries. Nevertheless, given the extent and significance of the reported human rights abuses, the European Union’s reaction might be interpreted as insufficiently severe. The absence of robust action from the EU raises valid concerns regarding the consistency between its actions and the proclaimed principles it upholds.
An analysis of civil society within the GCC countries reveals a complex landscape. While there are no official statistics, available evidence suggests that approximately 10,000 associations, private enterprises, and other civil society groups currently operate within the GCC. Notably, NGOs and civil society activists, including organizations like Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and the UN Development Program (UNDP), have launched substantial campaigns advocating for the rights of citizens in the GCC region. Additionally, there are other civil society groups, primarily led by local citizens and temporary migrants, that operate without government approval, leaving them vulnerable to state policing.
From the governments’ perspective, international civil society groups are often perceived as more inclined toward confrontation rather than collaboration, frequently holding biased and politicized views about the region. Consequently, GCC governments have limited their partnerships with international civil society. In response, these organizations have sought alternative avenues to advocate for reform, exerting increasing pressure on foreign governments, international associations, and unions to generate momentum for GCC governments to align with international standards.
In Saudi Arabia, the government has consistently engaged in practices aimed at suppressing civil society. This situation has been further exacerbated by the delay in publishing a long-promised civil society law, making it exceedingly difficult to register an association. Saudi Arabia faces a precarious situation where a substantial portion of the population aspires to engage in government decision-making. Unfortunately, they encounter significant obstacles due to the absence of formal channels. Adding to the severity of this issue is the ominous risk of the death penalty or life imprisonment associated with expressing opinions on social media networks.
In the United Arab Emirates, authorities have persisted in a relentless campaign against human rights and freedoms. This campaign includes targeting human rights activists, enacting repressive legislation, and exploiting the criminal justice system to suppress the human rights movement. These policies have culminated in the closure of civic space, imposing severe restrictions on freedom of expression both in online and offline domains and criminalizing peaceful dissent. For over a decade, UAE authorities have unjustly detained at least 60 Emirati human rights defenders, civil society activists, and political dissidents who were arrested due to their advocacy for reform and democracy. To exacerbate the situation, some of their families have been subjected to relentless reprisals, including arbitrary revocation of citizenship, travel bans on family members, interference with their educational and employment pursuits, and freezing of bank accounts.
Bahrain’s history of civil society engagement has been substantially undermined by the government’s actions. Following the 2011 events and the breakdown of political dialogue between the government and the opposition, the government invoked the Penal Code and pursued more restrictive legislative changes. The Bahraini government has employed broad terrorism laws and legislation like the Law of Associations, enabling it to criminalize nearly all forms of peaceful dissent and prosecute legitimate political opposition leaders and human rights defenders. NGOs and civil society activists have asserted that the ministry routinely exploited its oversight role to impede the activities of NGOs and other civil society organizations.
The region faces numerous human rights issues, including allegations of torture, arbitrary detention, political prisoners, arbitrary or unlawful interference with privacy, restrictions on freedom of expression, the press, and the internet, including censorship, site blocking, and criminal libel, as well as substantial interference with the rights of peaceful assembly and freedom of association. This includes restrictions on independent nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from freely operating in the country and significant restrictions on freedom of movement. These issues have significantly curtailed constitutionally guaranteed freedoms of expression, association, and peaceful assembly, leaving civil society in GCC countries facing severe restrictions and insurmountable obstacles to function independently and freely. The reality is that civil society in the GCC countries operates under significant constraints, with governments exhibiting a pronounced reluctance to tolerate open discourse and dissent.
Human Rights Defenders
Since at least 2011, it has come to our attention that several member states of the GCC have taken repressive measures against peaceful critics and activists. These measures have included arbitrary arrests, instances of torture and other forms of ill-treatment, trials that fall short of meeting fair trial standards, and the imposition of lengthy prison sentences. Additionally, family members of these individuals have faced harassment, and travel bans have been imposed, effectively making life unbearable for anyone seeking to express independent views peacefully.
At present, in the GCC member states, a total of at least 75 people are incarcerated for exercising their legitimate rights to freedom of expression, association, or assembly. It is worth noting that these figures stem from Amnesty International’s diligent monitoring and documentation activities and may not fully encompass the extent of arrests and prosecutions. These individuals find themselves unjustly behind bars for advocating change and reform. Their imprisonment silences their voices and sends a chilling message across the region, where little to no room is left for freedom of expression. It is crucial to consider the issue of human rights defenders, as they mirror the lens through which a government hides its atrocities. The Gulf States exemplify these mechanisms through their violent persecution of human rights defenders and activists, who are often political opponents of their authoritarian regimes.
The members of the group commonly known as the “UAE94” are Mohamed al-Mansoori, Hassan Mohammed Al-Hammad, Hadif Rashed Abdullah al-Owais, Ali Saeed Al-Kindi, and Salim Hamdoon Al-Shahhi. This collective consists of 94 individuals, including lawyers, human rights defenders, and academics, all of whom were sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment in July 2013 on charges of conspiring to overthrow the current government. An expert appointed by the United Nations expressed deep concern over the prolonged detention of these five human rights defenders in the United Arab Emirates and called upon the government to release them immediately. Mary Lawlor, the UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, pointed out that “their sentences were excessively harsh, and the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention had declared their detentions to be arbitrary.”
The decision to shed light on cases of oppression in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates arises from a consistent pattern of persecution of human rights activists in these nations and the surrounding region. In Bahrain’s case, it is noteworthy that the country once harbored a vibrant civil society, but over the years, this landscape has rapidly transformed, with the Al Khalifa regime tightening its grip on power. Furthermore, the lack of space for civil society has long characterized the environments in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Accusations have been leveled against these countries for “financing oppression,” and criticism has been directed at Western leaders, particularly those in the European Union and the United Kingdom, for their alleged neglect of serious human rights violations.
Among the Gulf dictatorships, a common aspect that can be observed is the dire state of their prison systems. Practices such as arbitrary and incommunicado detentions, torture, ill-treatment, prolonged solitary confinement, and the denial of access to legal assistance have been consistently reported. Forced confessions have been used as evidence in trial proceedings, and prisoners have frequently expressed complaints about overcrowded and unsanitary conditions, as well as inadequate medical care.
In Bahrain, prisoners have endured torture and brutal, inhuman treatment, including medical neglect, delays in medical treatment as reprisals, and the denial of contact with family members. On 7 August 2023, prisoners of conscience initiated a hunger strike to protest their conditions of detention and the arbitrary nature of their imprisonment. The hunger strike gained momentum as the days passed, with hundreds of prisoners joining in. Prominent Bahraini human rights activists were among the participants, including Abdulhadi Al Khawaja, Abduljalil Al Singace, and Hassan Mushaima.
In Saudi Arabia, many inmates detained are subjected to inhumane conditions, including severe beatings and widespread diseases. Thousands of individuals are believed to have vanished into the “black hole” of Saudi prisons with no indication of when or if they will be released. Political prisoners and migrants endure the harshest treatment in the kingdom’s prison system, with overcrowded cells housing hundreds of inmates, resulting in individuals taking turns sleeping on beds or being forced to sleep on the floor.
There have been cases of detainees exhibiting symptoms of tuberculosis, such as vomiting and coughing up blood, with their pleas for medical attention often going unanswered and the majority being denied access to a doctor.
In the UAE, inmates have endured prolonged solitary confinement and ill-treatment. There have been documented instances of overcrowding, extended waits for access to healthcare, and abysmal sanitary conditions. On March 17, 2022, United Nations human rights experts urgently called on UAE authorities to reform the “degrading conditions of detention” in prisons within the country.
These recurring practices demonstrate how GCC states are entirely uncommitted to human rights and the rule of law. They unlawfully imprisoned human rights defenders, political activists, or citizens who dared to voice dissent against the state’s interests, sometimes simply through a tweet. What is even more distressing is that these men and women had no chance of a fair trial, as they were subjected to all forms of violence to obtain confessions and illegal evidence without legal assistance. They were brought before a biased court and destined for imprisonment for daring to disagree with an authoritarian regime.
Efficacy of the Dialogues:
The European Union (EU) grapples with substantial challenges in its approach to human rights dialogues. Firstly, there is a glaring absence of a comprehensive conceptual framework that clarifies how these dialogues effectively promote human rights and drive change in third countries. The lack of publicly available information, owing to the informal nature of these dialogues, further complicates the task of substantiating their efficacy. Additionally, the absence of standardized methods for evaluating the impact of these dialogues relegates them to symbolic practices. This notion is reinforced by the EU’s inability to demonstrate the success of any individual dialogue.
Due to the lack of clarity surrounding the impact of these dialogue initiatives, it’s reasonable to perceive the potential influence of the EU’s human rights dialogues as minimal, often ending up as mere rhetorical exercises.
The credibility of an EU human rights dialogue with a third country depends on significant improvements in that country’s human rights situation. If such improvements are lacking, suspending these dialogues can be viewed as a reasonable course of action. The ongoing continuation of dialogues without concrete results may strengthen the perception that human rights are being undermined and employed solely as a facade for cooperation between the EU and states that violate these principles. Ironically, the EU maintains discussions on human rights and trade relations with authoritarian regimes notorious for extensive human rights abuses. What exacerbates this frustration is the sporadic linkage of economic cooperation to tangible human rights improvements, such as the release of political activists held in captivity.
On the other hand, progress is more likely to be achieved through implementing punitive measures, and international public pressure can play a pivotal role in driving improvements.
The EU and its member states wield significant influence as crucial partners of the GCC states, and they must adopt a more assertive stance on human rights concerns, giving them precedence over purely economic interests. On a global scale, EU nations should step into leadership by advocating for and supporting a UN Human Rights Council resolution to establish a robust monitoring and reporting mechanism tailored explicitly to the GCC. Simultaneously, private dialogues addressing human rights issues must undergo heightened scrutiny and be subject to increased accountability measures.
The time has come for resolute action, where prioritizing human rights over profits is non-negotiable. The European Council must take the bold step of adopting the EU Global Human Rights Sanctions Regime to hold human rights violators accountable. This crucial move would ensure that those responsible for the numerous violations are held accountable, conditioning EU relations with GCC countries upon commitment to human rights due diligence.
If the EU hesitates to hold violators accountable, it should at least consider discontinuing these dialogues. Symbolic actions prove inadequate in addressing violations of human rights and the rule of law, as they inadvertently contribute to whitewashing the ongoing atrocities within the GCC countries. This creates a misleading impression of progress on the international stage, while the stark reality remains that genuine progress is lacking.
Conclusion and Recommendations:
In conclusion, despite the promotion of EU-GCC human rights dialogues and the frequent assertions by European politicians about their participation in bilateral discussions with GCC authorities regarding human rights concerns, the situation in the region has shown little significant improvement due to these dialogues. In reality, authoritarian regimes have intensified their mistreatment of their population, resorting to violence against those who dare to dissent against the regime. While EU-GCC dialogues have often been portrayed as crucial for addressing human rights concerns, the unfortunate reality is that they have failed to bring about any significant improvement in the state of human rights within the Gulf region. A more robust and determined accountability policy is necessary, along with precisely defined benchmarks that enable impartial evaluations of concrete advancements. To this end, the EU must boldly implement the EU Global Human Rights Sanctions Regime to hold human rights violators accountable.
Building upon the observations outlined in this assessment, the European Centre for Democracy and Human Rights calls on the European Union to:
- Undertake a comprehensive review of the effectiveness of human rights dialogues with GCC states and other third countries. Establish clear benchmarks and impact measurement criteria to ensure meaningful progress in the promotion of human rights.
- Place human rights concerns at the forefront of diplomatic engagements with GCC states, ensuring that economic cooperation is conditional upon tangible improvements in the human rights situation.
- Promote greater transparency in EU-GCC dialogues by publicly disclosing more information about the issues discussed and the outcomes achieved to foster accountability.
- Introduce punitive measures, including sanctions, against human rights violators to hold them accountable for their actions. Adopt the EU Global Human Rights Sanctions Regime as a means to ensure accountability.
- Advocate for and actively support a UN Human Rights Council resolution aimed at establishing a robust monitoring and reporting mechanism specifically dedicated to the GCC, fostering international scrutiny and accountability.